Posted by Jean Robert
The historical origin of poker is debatable, but this game chiropractic marketing was two or three centuries 1 .
This game reminds play Iran as nas , supposedly introduced to the United States by French sailors. However the description of this Persian game in 1890 and is back in the early historical sources who trace the origin of this game recovery in the U.S. in xix th century 2 . It is generally regarded as akin to the French game trips or premium (card game) , which was a great success in Italy , in Spain , in France and in England the xvi th century and xvii th century. The premium introduces the concept of bluffing that also appears in other games of this era, like the English game brag . The game of the ambiguous 3 , invented in France under Louis XIV, draws heavily on the premium and, as she proposes a hierarchy of combinations, which is the essential feature of poker. At the end of the xviii th century, the principle of blind , used poker, appears in the hot water bottle – spin on the trips – under the name square . It was during the middle of the xix th century that generalizes the use of the game with 52 cards, and the color is allowed as hand.
The name of the game itself would come from the German pochen (hit) card game that is played from the xv th century Germany, and appears to be an older version of poker, both very close to its rules of poker that foot ulcer treatment current by the tactics of play xviii th century, the era is a French adaptation of the German game that presents interesting similarities with poker 4 . The etymological relationship of the French game poker can not mask the lack of historical sources: no document, other than textbooks game of xviii th century, no evidence that this game was practiced. The English name of the game appears to be related to the verb to poke , “giving a kick”, “poke” (where a poker , a poker), the same etymology as German pochen .
The modern poker
It’s the U.S. that the game takes off in its modern version. The first historical evidence on poker to the United States is that of the English actor Joseph Crowell , who tells a form of practice he sees this game in 1829 in New Orleans , where four players playing with a set of twenty cards are betting on which of them has the strongest hand. In 1843 , Jonathan H. Green (in) describes in his literary work An exposure of the Arts and Miseries of Gambling expansion card games on the steamboats that plied the Mississippi . Professional golfers, leagues sometimes lynched by Puritan in some U.S. cities where they are able to ban the game, finding refuge on the floating casinos to fleece wealthy slave traders or cotton 2 . From there it spreads throughout the American West at the time of the gold rush of 1848 , and became an integral part of the myth related to the conquest of the West . Poker is the game practiced by cowboys and adventurers who came to try their luck in the American West. The game scenes are common in movies (western) dealing with this period, the character of Doc Holliday that really existed was the archetypal player saloon while Maverick of Richard Donner with Mel Gibson describes the prevailing atmosphere on board some boats going down the Mississippi. The whiskey in the north, south and west, the gin in the north and south, the rum in the South become the drink beverages that players in the United States. The rise of bourbon and whiskey is linked to the development of saloon and clubs, itself linked to the growth of gambling such as poker or roulette .
Numerous variants emerge during the Civil War America ( 1861 – 1865 ). It is then that stabilize the basic forms of draw poker ( Draw ), and five card stud . Other variants emerge later. The game is re-imported to Europe in its modern form during the second half of the xix th century, in its variant of draw poker (called a ” French poker “at the beginning of the xx th century). It is widespread in all countries of the world, sometimes brought in the luggage of U.S. or Canadian military.
The success and media coverage of poker
Table Main Event WSOP 2006
The popularity of poker (and mostly Texas hold’em no-limit) reached an unprecedented peak in the 2000s. This “poker boom” is attributed to several factors: the invention of online poker , the televising of tournaments (with miniature cameras reveal the cards), the presentation of online poker sites in television commercials, and victory in 2003 of Chris Moneymaker in the World Series of Poker .
Not only the public can now track the actions of tournaments on television, turning this game into sporting spectacle, but it can also play directly from home. The spread of tournaments such as World Series of Poker and World Poker Tour created a strong audience among providers of TV programs via cable or satellite. Because of this media coverage, professional players have become celebrities, with many fans around the world playing tournaments in hopes of being confronted with these celebrities.
According to a university study on online poker 5 , the number of players playing for money (cash games) in 2010 was estimated at 5.5 million, including 1.3 million players (21%) from the USA, approximately 450 000 from Germany, 350,000 in France. These players were outnumbered by those who do not bet real money ( playmoney ). Compared to the population, it is the countries of northern Europe with the most players (money), with 1.3% of the population in Denmark (followed Iceland, Estonia, Netherlands, Norway , Finland). The majority of these players are between 18-35 years (44% between 21-25 years). On average each player would lose $ 432 each year 5 . Globally, the poker sites in 2010 were more representative PokerStars (40% market share) and Full Tilt Poker (20%) 6 , and 2011 for information sites PokerStrategy, 2 +2 and PokerNews 7 . By some estimates, the online poker market in 2010 would have represented $ 2.5 billion (650 million U.S. players, 179 million for players of France) [ref. required] .
All variants of poker satisfy a number of general principles.
The poker is a game played with combinations of cards and chips representing money eventually. The combinations are made with five cards regardless of the variant practiced. The game alternates between steps of card distribution and auction.
Goal of the game
In general, the goal is to win tokens from other players. If you play in tournaments , the goal is to play as long as possible and finish the game in the top rankings, with one of said seats paid. The first classification is the one who wins all the chips of the participants. If you play in cash games , each player sits down at the table with a quantity of chips directly convertible to cash. The aim is obviously the same as in tournament mode: earn tokens. There is one notable difference: in a tournament, it is impossible to convert his money chips. Only paid up saving money when in cash games, the player has the freedom to leave the table and share his chips against money.
In Caribbean Poker or caribbean stud poker , version less common and similar to blackjack, the player faces a dealer and try to win the most tokens.
Two to ten players are positioned around a table. A button means the donor (in English: dealer – which can be virtual if the table has a dealer). We play in the direction of clockwise from the dealer.
Position “late” are the “dealer”, which is the last to speak, and the cutoff is the second last to speak. These are the two positions where the raises to fly the coup are quite common because they have the advantage of position, that is to say, to speak last.
Article: the role and positioning of the donor .
A poker hand always consists of exactly five cards. Following variations, the highest hand wins (variants played high ) or the lowest hand (variants played low ) or the highest hand and lowest hand are taken into account (variants played high / low ).
Possible combinations, the order and their comparison are available here:
Main article: bad credit loan Hand Poker .
Before receiving their cards, players must put the blinds that are of three kinds: antes, blinds and the bring-in. We can use three kinds in the same turn and in that order.
In tournaments, the blinds go up in stages (or levels) in three to twenty minutes or more. The increase made may vary from quarter to a third of the value of the last. A table listing the various levels before the start of each tournament.
The ante (from the Latin before ) is a forced bet placed by each player at the table. It does not change the speaking order. In general this is a setting of 10% to 20% of the big blind. The introduction of antes , after a few blind levels, often gives a great impetus to attempts to “steal” the blinds at auction.
The blinds (blinds or – of English blind : Blind ) are placed by the two players left of the dealer , the first placing the small blind (in English small blind ) and the second asking the big blind (the English big blind ) worth double the small blind. Allow the blinds to speak last in the first round of betting. If no one has raised before him, the player in the big blind has the right to raise.
The player left of the big blind is called “player under the gun” (in English under the gun : under the gun) because, to speak first, he is in a position unfavorable for the coup. Some variants allow “option” that is for the “player under the gun” to bet double the big blind before receiving his cards and speak last in the first round of betting.
The big blind also represents the minimum raise that players can ask after the auction.
The bring-in (in French: input ) is a forced bet used in the studs to be asked by a player under certain conditions (usually the one with the lowest upcard).
The auction determines how each player in turn, is allowed to wager any or all of his chips.
The basic principle is that a player must “follow” the same amount as the last raiser to stay in the game. If he does not, it “passes”, and loses its earlier ambitions put the pot under way and will remain passive until the liquidation of the latter.
If no player has bet before him (in the first round of betting, the big blind must be taken into account), he can “speak”, that is to say, wait a possible revival of another player to build itself. If all players’ parolent “, the betting round ends.
A player can also “boost” that is to say, bet more on the spot. A raise must be at least the amount of the big blind and at least the amount of the stronger stimulus of current betting round if necessary. A player who revived can not raise its own stimulus in the absence of a raise from another player.
If a player has enough chips to call, he can still stay in the game to the end by leveraging its “carpet”, that is to say all that remains. Its potential gains are then limited by considering (to himself) that other players do not bet more than him. The excess of the other players is then a side pot (or parallel) that they can continue to compete under the same conditions.
The betting round ends when all players who could speak (that is, those who have not already happened dental assistant career research center or who have not already bet their chips) have done and bet the same amount .
Main article: auction proceedings poker .
The poker games
There are several main types of poker. They all contain numerous variations and are practiced in various limits (structure of betting rounds). Sometimes added additional game modes. Poker has also spawned casino games and company abandon its original auction format 8 .
Poker is played as many variations around three main families. They differ primarily by the method of distribution maps. Cards may be common to all players or private. They can also be closed (visible only to its owner) or open (visible to all). We also distinguish the height of game played. The hands can be victorious high (high) , low (low) or both (high / low) . In some variants where you play the high and low hands, certain conditions are imposed on low hands. For example, the hand of a player card can contain over eight (eight or better) or as can not count that high card (deuce to seven) .
The closed poker
In these embodiments, each player receives five cards systematically. They are all private and closed.
The draw poker or five card draw : the historical variant of poker, one that beginners often learn first.
The lowball closed , or lowball or ace-to-five or California lowball is played like draw poker but how low ace to five .
The Deuce to Seven or Kansas City lowball is played like poker closed mode but deuce to seven low .
The Badugi is the only poker game played with four cards, one must have weak cards that are not the same color.
The Baducey is a mixture between badugi and 2 to 7. The final pot will be split into two, one half for the best games badugi and the other half for the best sets of 2 to 7. Unlike badugi or the ace is the best card in the baducey the ace is the worst. Thus the best combination is 23,457 with 2,345 different color.
Variants in common cards
In these variants, some of the cards is common and therefore open (visible) and another is private and closed (hidden).
The Texas Hold’em , Hold’em or Vegas (two private cards, five community cards).
The Double Hold’em , Double Flop Hold’em or (two private cards, twice five community cards).
The Omaha (four private cards, five community cards, there are modes in high or high / low ).
The Aviation (four private cards, five community cards).
The Courchevel (five hole cards, five community cards, there are modes in high or high / low ).
The Irish (four private cards, five community cards).
The Pineapple (three hole cards, five community cards).
The Crazy Pineapple (three hole cards, five community cards).
The Royal Hold’em (two private cards, five community cards).
All cards are private but some are open and others closed.
The Five Card Stud , Five-card stud or Cincinnati Kid (one hole card, four cards face up).
The Seven Card Stud , Seven-card stud (three hole cards, four cards face up, in modes are high , low or high / low ).
The Stud Eight-or-Better is the name given to seven-card stud played high / low .
The Razz or lowball is the name given to seven-card stud played low .
The Queen and follow the plays like seven-card stud but the wildcard and Q is the map that is given after the Q. This card is given after the Q is that joker until another Q is given, in this case it is the card that is given after the last Q is wildcard (modes exist in high or high / low ).
The mambo stud poker , stud poker variants of fun
The high, the low and high / low
There are three ways to compare players’ hands . These modes must be activated and available to the players before the game begins.
These three modes describe how the players’ hands will be compared, there are:
Mode high : only the strongest combinations count.
Mode low : only the lowest count combinations.
How high low : the highest hand wins half the pot and lower the other half (often with some restrictions to be valid).
The Kill or Half-Kill
This is a game option sometimes used in a cash game. When a player wins a pot without sharing ( scoop ), he receives the button Kill . If the same player again next round scoop it becomes the killer . A killer must wager at least two times the big blind (initial bet) even if it is small or big blind. The game then continues as if the blinds were doubled. This obligation falls when the killer takes the pot. Sometimes we add conditions, such as a minimum amount of the pot to activate the kill . On the other hand, sometimes the killer has the right to speak last in the first round of betting. We talk about Half-Kill when you do not double the blind but it does that the multiple of 1.5.
The Look at Two Botox Kelowna and kill
This option is used in Lowball . Each player can enter this mode after seeing received and watched his first two cards. He then receives the button kill .
A special feature in a cash game, the player after the big blind may, before seeing their cards, take the “option”: it then has to double the big blind and will be the last to speak at the first round of betting.
Inspired games of poker
The Strip Poker
The Poker Ace
The Liar poker
The Caribbean Poker
Worldwide, the best known are Doyle Brunson , Johnny Chan , Daniel Negreanu , Phil Hellmuth , Phil Ivey , Tom “durrrr” Dwan , Mike Matusow , Chris Moneymaker , Chris Ferguson , Gus Hansen , Sam Farha , Erik Seidel , Joe Hachem .
The player remains the most legendary Stu Ungar nicknamed ‘The Kid’ for her child’s face, who won the WSOP ME back to 3 in as many.
The singer Patrick Bruel , Gilbert Gross, Claude Cohen, David Benyamine , Vanessa Hellebuyck, Bertrand “ElkY” Grospellier , Fabrice Soulier and Elie Payan eight players are French to win a title at the world championship of poker WSOP .
Michel Abecassis , Bruno Fitoussi , and Antony Lellouche are also among the most famous French players of poker.
The Quebecers Jonathan Duhamel won the Main Event World Series of Poker 2010 .
Main articles: List of Champions World Series of Poker and Category: Poker player .
The major poker tournaments
The best known are the World Series of Poker (WSOP), the World Poker Tour (WPT) and the European Poker Tour (EPT).
In France, the bigger tournaments in terms of earnings are the World Poker Tour , EPT Deauville and the Grand Prix de Paris (WPT).
Main articles: Poker Tournament and Category: Poker Tournament .
Main article: online casino .
Many companies offer online gaming services. These companies make available to their customers a poker software and take a commission on the parts that make the players through their interface.
Main article: Algorithm poker game .
Main article: Video game of poker .
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Poker is a game that combines elements of luck and strategy. According to the variants, and some types of players, there are a multitude of strategies.
Probability of hands starting hands
Pot odds, implied odds
Deception: bluffing, semi-bluff, slow play
Image and player profiles
Expected gain, equity (EV), return on investment (ROI), BB / hour …
Culture and Society
Main article: Pathological Gambling .
Among those who engage in games of chance and gambling ( gambling in English), some people develop a disease: the game becomes an addiction or a disease resulting in an uncontrollable impulse to wager money.
At Waterloo , Cassius Coolidge , circa 1906
There are many depictions of hunting dogs playing poker. The first of these representations are caused by Cassius Coolidge who, in 1903, going on an advertising contract to create sixteen paintings of dogs in human poses. He made 9 of dogs around a table playing poker.
Many movies have one or more scenes depicting poker games.
Main article: Party Poker at the cinema .
The Players ( Rounders , 1998). Directed by John Dahl, starring Matt Damon, Edward Norton, Paul Circero, John Turturro, Martin Landau and John Malkovich (Teddy KGB).
The Slayer (2010) Rodolphe Tissot, Adrienne Pauly, William Denaiffe, Maurice Benichou. This film shows the Parisian gaming circles through the experience of Mathilde, who literally falls in the game
In the film Casino Royale (2006), James Bond confronts Le Chiffre in a game of Texas hold’em. This part ends in the victory of 007 with a straight flush, while Le Chiffre has him a full house. The gambling scene is a key element of the film.
Location by country
Poker in France
Media coverage of poker in France began around 2005 with many television 9 . According to the newspaper Liberation in June 2010, “The potential number of online poker players regularly [in France] could reach 1.5 million to a turnover of 300 million euros in 2010 and 500 million euros in 2011 ” 10 . According to a university study, in 2010, online poker players from France (real money tournaments not included) were estimated at 348,918 (or 5.81% of players in the world) 5 . According pokerscout.com rooms most represented (gambling) in May 2010 were PokerStars (26%) and Full Tilt Poker (14%) 5 , and July 11, 2011 PokerStars (46%), Winamax (34 %) and PartyPoker (17%), with 4.0% of money players 11 .
Poker is considered by the French authorities as a game of chance . As gambling is prohibited to minors. It can not be played live only in casinos and gambling circles known to the State, since 2007. Poker games are banned in public places and establishments, or where payment of the organizers. The online poker 12 was practiced by hundreds of thousands of French players for several years, but it is authorized by the authorities since 2010 and only two variants: the Texas Hold’em ( limit, pot-limit and no -limit ) and Omaha (only limit and pot-limit ), the form of cash games , the sit-and-go (no rebuys or add-on ) or tournament . The activities of online poker are controlled by the Regulatory Authority for online games (ARJEL) issuing from the month of June 2010 of approvals to poker sites in the area ” . fr ” 10 .
Posted by Jean Robert
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Posted by Jean Robert
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